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DebianEdu/Documentation/Etch/HowTo/

Administration

This page has been moved to http://wiki.debian.org/DebianEdu/Documentation/Etch/HowTo/Administration - please go there for editing it.

Editing of the wiki pages on wiki.skolelinux.no/!DebianEdu/Documentation/Etch/* has been disabled, to avoid confusion.

We haven't removed them here (yet), so that old links still work. Please update your links.


HowTos for general administration

The Getting Started and Maintainance chapters describe how to get started with Debian Edu and how to do the basic maintainance work. The howtos in this chapter are already "advanced" tipps and tricks.

Installing single service machines for spreading the load from main-server

Tracking /etc/ using the svk version control system

With the introduction of the debian-edu-etc-svk script in Debian Edu, all files in /etc/ are tracked using svk as a version control system. This make it possible to see when a file added, changed and removed, as well as what was changed if the file is a text file. The svk repository is stored in ~root/.svk/.

This feature is activated automatically in the Etch based version of Debian Edu, and all changes done during installation are registered. Changes in /etc/ are commited every hour.

List of useful commands:

 debian-edu-etc-svk diff
 debian-edu-etc-svk log
 debian-edu-etc-svk status
 debian-edu-etc-svk commit
 debian-edu-etc-svk ignore

Usage examples

In a freshly installed system try this to see all changes done since the system was installed:

debian-edu-etc-svk diff -r6 | less 

To see the list of changes done in /etc/, use this command:

debian-edu-etc-svk log | less 

To see the changes done to a specific file, specify the file:

debian-edu-etc-svk diff -r6 /etc/resolv.conf | less 

To revert a change, use the diff command to look at the change, and edit the file to undo the change, or use a command like this to do it automatically:

( cd /etc && debian-edu-etc-svk diff -r6 /etc/resolv.conf | patch -p1 -R )

To manually commit a file, because you don't want to wait up to an hour:

debian-edu-etc-svk commit /etc/resolv.conf 

If you don't want a specific file to be tracked in svk, you can tell to ignore it. But this is rarely useful :-)

debian-edu-etc-svk ignore /etc/path/to/file/to/be/ignored 

For those who upgraded from sarge/woody

/etc in svk was introduced with the etch based release of Debian Edu. If you installed your system prior to this, you need to initialize svk once with the following command run as root:

debian-edu-etc-svk init

This adds all files in /etc to svk and also activates the hourly commit cronjob.

Resize Partitions

Most partitions in Debian Edu are logical LVM volumes. Only the /boot/ partition is not. With the Debian/Etch release of Debian Edu, it is possible to extend partitions while they are mounted. This is a feature of the Linux kernel since version 2.6.10. Shrinking partitions still need to happen while the partition is unmounted.

It is a good idea to avoid creating very large partitions, as large partitions will take a long time to restore from backup if the need should arise, and file system check take a very long time for large partitions. A good limit can be 20 GiB. It is better, if possible, to create several smaller partitions than one very large one.

To make it easier to extend full partitions, the debian-edu-fsautoresize script is provided. When invoked, it reads the configuration from /usr/share/debian-edu-config/fsautoresizetab, /site/etc/fsautoresizetab and /etc/fsautoresizetab, and based on the rules provided in these files propose to extend partitions with too little free space. Without any arguments, it will only write the commands needed to extend the file system, and the argument -n is needed to actually extend the file systems.

Logical Volumne Management

Logical Volumne Management (LVM) enables resizing the partitions while they are mounted and in use. You can learn more about LVM in the LVM HowTo.

To extend a logical volume manually you simply tell the lvextend command how large you want it to grow to.

For example, to extend home0 to 30GB you use the following commands:

{{{lvextend -L30G /dev/vg_system/skole+tjener+home0 resize2fs /dev/vg_system/skole+tjener+home0}}}

Using volatile.debian.org

Since volatile.debian.org is a relativly new service, introduced with Debian Etch, it's not enabled on default installations.

What is debian-volatile?

Quoting from the webpage:

How to use volatile

Since the volatile archive key is included in the debian-archive-keyring package, which is installed by default, you do not have to add this key manually to roots keyring anymore. Just add the following line to /etc/apt/sources.list:

deb http://volatile.debian.org/debian-volatile etch/volatile main

And run aptitude update && aptitude upgrade.

Using backports.org

You are running Debian Edu, because you prefer the stability of Debian Edu. It runs great, there is just one problem: sometimes software is a little bit more outdated as you like. This is where backports.org steps in.

Backports are recompiled packages from Debian testing (mostly) and Debian unstable (in a few cases only, e.g. security updates), so they will run without new libraries (wherever it is possible) on a stable Debian distribution like Debian Edu. We recommend you to pick out single backports which fits your needs, and not to use all backports available there. Please follow the instructions on http://www.backports.org to use these backports.

You will need to add the backports.org archive key to root's gpg keyring, so that apt can use this repository securily. This is done by running these commands as root:

# install the debian-keyring securily:
aptitude install debian-keyring
# fetch the backports.org key insecurily:
gpg --keyserver pgpkeys.pca.dfn.de --recv-keys 16BA136C
# check securily if the key is correct and add it to root's keyring if it is:
gpg --keyring /usr/share/keyrings/debian-keyring.gpg --check-sigs 16BA136C && gpg --export 16BA136C | apt-key add - 
# update the list of available packages:
aptitude update

Then you can either use aptitude -t etch-backports install <packagename> to install or update packages once, or you can configure a package to be always installed from backports.org though /etc/apt/preferences which is described in the instructions on backports.org.

The second variant has the advantage, that updates to backports are installed automatically when they are available. With the first variant you need to update manually.

Java

apt-get install sun-java5-plugin sun-java5-jre sun-java5-fonts

HowTos from wiki.debian.org

The HowTos from http://wiki.debian.org/DebianEdu/HowTo/ are either user- or developer-specific. Let's move the user-specific HowTos over here (and delete them over there)! (But first ask the authors (see the history of those pages to find them) if they are fine with moving the howto and putting it under the GPL.)

DebianEdu/Documentation/Etch/HowTo/Administration (last edited 2009-10-12 09:57:30 by localhost)